Craniofacial cartilage organoids from human neural crest stem cells

Published: 4 April 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/49gxpjrcn9.1
Mark Grimes


We hypothesize that knowledge of cell signaling pathways that drive human neural crest differentiation into craniofacial chondrocytes may be obtained using human stem cells that self-organize into organoids. We developed a differentiation protocol that generated self-organizing craniofacial cartilage organoids from human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells. Histological staining of cartilage organoids revealed tissue architecture and staining typical of elastic cartilage. Protein and post-translational modification (PTM) mass spectrometry and snRNA-seq data showed that chondrocyte organoids expressed robust levels of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components: many collagens, aggrecan, perlecan, proteoglycans, and elastic fibers.


Steps to reproduce

Foltz et al., Craniofacial chondrogenesis in organoids from human stem cell-derived neural crest cells, iScience (2024),


Cell Signaling Technology Inc, University of Montana Missoula


Craniofacial Biology, Neural Crest, Human Pluripotent Stem Cell