Commercial vaccines used in poultry, cattle, and aquaculture

Published: 4 October 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/4b26xzs5jj.1
, Daniel Cala,


Currently, maintaining or expanding on these successes poses a significant challenge for the global biopharmaceutical industry. Meeting the high demand for vaccines tailored to the specificities of each pathogen and species requires robust production systems capable of producing in a stable and high yielding manner (9, 10). There are several technological platforms (traditional or modern) available for this purpose, as well as different options for obtaining effective, stable, and safe vaccines (2). Knowing the best option for each species and infectious agent in advance is critical for the industry in this highly diverse and complex environment. It will allow manufacturers to make the best decisions with a minimal risk of failure, quickly enter the market, and optimally take advantage of all available resources. Based on these facts, an investigation was conducted with the aim of comparing global trends in the manufacture and marketing of avian, bovine, and fish vaccines.


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A nonexperimental, observational, quantitative investigation with a descriptive scope was conducted from october 2022 to december 2022. As there was no animal involvement, ethical committee approval was not required for the analysis. The primary source of information consisted of publicly available technical documents available on the official websites of the different veterinary biopharmaceutical companies. Only texts containing specifications of the avian, bovine, and fish vaccines marketed during 2022 (type of formulation, production technology, infectious agent and adjuvant) were considered, whereas news and comments were excluded from the study. To ensure systematic organization and control, the technical information of the 587 formulations provided by the 11 participating companies was registered and coded on a Microsoft Excel (2019) sheet. Descriptive statistics, including absolute and relative frequencies, were employed to characterize the comprehensive range of variables. Subsequently, groups of formulations with similar profiles were identified, and the existing associations between their attributes were assessed via multiple correspondence analyses using the R software version 4.3.1 (Bell Laboratories, USA). The variables selected to determine potential associations included animal species, vaccine production technology, formulation, pathogen and adjuvant.


Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Instituto de Cibernetica Matematica y Fisica


Vaccine, Aquaculture, Cattle, Poultry, Vaccination