Early-life disruption of plasmalogen-positive anaerobic microbiota is linked to the aggravation of colitis
Abstract Objective The development of inflammatory bowel disease promotes increases in the aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria population but reduces the anaerobic bacteria population. Plasmalogens are widely present in anaerobic but absent from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Herein, we hypothesized that the alteration of plasmalogen-producing bacteria might be involved in colitis development early in life. Design Abundances of plasmalogen-positive bacteria and dimethyl acetal (DMA, represent plasmalogens) were assessed via 16s microbiome and lipids analysis. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model, antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion, and metronidazole-induced anaerobic bacteria-eliminated model were utilized to analyze the role of early-life microbiota disruption. Fecal microbiota transplantation and plasmalogens administration were used for investigating the potential of plasmalogen-producing bacteria in colitis. Results Higher abundance of plasmalogen-positive bacteria and dimethyl-acetal were observed in young mice, but reduced abundance was observed in individuals with IBD. Early-life microbiota depletion exacerbated later colitis, while mid-life microbiota depletion showed partially reduced colitis. Besides, restitution of early-life microbiota confers protection against colitis. Of note, depletion of anaerobic bacteria resulted in reduced DMA levels, which underscored that anaerobic bacteria are the mainly microbial origin of colonic plasmalogens. Interestingly, plasmalogens treatment showed benefits against colitis in mice. Similarly, colonization with anaerobic microbiota from young mice suppressed colitis. On the contrary, early-life anaerobic bacteria elimination resulted in the aggravation of colitis, while this aggravation phenotype was reverted by plasmalogens administration. Conclusion Here, these data point to one of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota controls susceptibility to colitis early in life via plasmalogens driven by anaerobic bacteria.