Data set from the article "Efficacy of xylazine in young calves via different routes of administration"
Intramuscular (IM) injections may be more aversive than subcutaneous (SC) and intra-nasal (IN) routes. Xylazine is commonly used as a sedative for cattle, but little is known about efficacy via these routes, so the first aim of this study was to compare efficacy using these different routes of administration. The second aim was to estimate how well a simple behavioural assessment is associated with physiological responses. Using a within-subject design, the effects of xylazine (0.2mg/kg) were assessed in 12 Holstein calves (6.2±2.8 d of age) administered via IM, SC, IN drip tube (IN) and IN spray (INs). Sedation was behaviourally assessed on a scale based on recumbency and eyeball rotation. An animal was considered sedated if it was recumbent (score >2) and with a noticeable eyeball roatation (score>0). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for 2 hours after treatment. IM and SC lead to equivalent mean±SD onset of sedation (IM: 4.8±2.0min vs. SC: 6.8±2.2min) and duration of sedation (IM: 60.3±25.5min vs. SC: 61.9±23.3min). IN treatments lead to less consistent and longer onset times (IN: 33.0±26.9min, and INs: 31.0±15.1min) and a shorter duration of sedation (IN: 42.0±31.5 min, and INs: 26.7±21.8 min). Behaviour scores were well correlated with HR (r=-0.55; CI -0.63, -0.47) but less so with RR (r=-0.34; CI -0.43,-0.24), and RT (r=-0.14, CI -0.24, -0.04). We conclude that SC is a viable alternative to the more aversive IM route, and that a simple clinical scale is useful for assessing xylazine sedation. Data column details: ID: calf identification number Sex: sex of the calf (F: Female, M:Male) ROA: Route of administration (IM: Intramuscular, SC: Subcutaneous, IN tube: Intranasal innoculation tip, IN spray: Intranasal spray tip) time: time after the injection of xylazine (0,10,20,30,45,60,90,120 min) General state: 0 - no effect, 1 - impaired gait, prancing gait, some excitement; 2 - lowered head, braced stance, hindquarter weakness; 3 - sternal or lateral recumbency, some responsiveness to repositioning, unable to stand; 4 - lateral recumbency, no response to movement of limbs Eyeball rotation: 0 – No rotation; 1 - the cornea is hidden under the lower eyelid (<50%); 2 - the cornea is hidden under the lower eyelid (>50%); 3 - the cornea has completely rotated under the lower eyelid; 4 – eye reflexes are lost. HR: Heart rate (bpm) RR: Respiratory rate (rpm) Temp: Rectal temperature (°C)