Developing&Validating Scale for context-based learning
Data were gathered to find out the students` learning in the context in an example of organic chemical materials that have been taught in secondary chemistry. Data shows students` wives about contextualizing learning or teaching methods during the teaching process of organic subjects in the last grade of secondary school. Two main contexts, industry and lives as contexts, were investigated and traditional instruction in besides. So, three factors were hypothesized to predict the teaching methods in which contextualizing to industry and daily life, traditional teaching. Data were described as the type like strongly agree- strongly disagree that was labelled in five choices for two academic years, between 2018-2020. Data were analyzed by using item analysis, factor analysis, reliability, and validation analysis. Item and Factor analysis were carried out by using SPSS software program. Items were retained with students` responses by analyzing some criteria such as t-value from two independent sample t-test. Six items were removed and the final version scale, including 11 items, was exploratory and confirmatory analyzed. For exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, data were divided into two samples independently. To identify factors exploratory factor analysis was carried out. Three factors were identified and they were related to the students` learning methods of organic materials. These three factors were described as learning methods, contextualizing learning with industry, lives, and traditional learning. The three factors were confirmatory analyzed to identify the construct validity which was indicated by considering the fit indexes by using AMOS software which was supported by SPSS statistical program. All fit indexes were achieved without NFI that was the sensitive sample size. To determine the composite reliability, loadings of items and loading factors were used to calculate to find out composite reliability value. This value was acceptable. The internal reliability, Cronbach`s Alpha, was also determined for factors. Two factors related to contextualizing learning were greater than acceptable value, but the third factor that was related to traditional learning, was smaller than the acceptable value. Validation analysis was performed to predict the convergent and discriminate validity. Convergent validity was determined as applicable as a result of an appropriate method of calculation. Discriminate validity was found out as acceptable by considering correlations of factors. All fit indexes and validity values were good to fit the hypothesized model with data. According to all results, the hypothesized model was confirmed but some limitations, such as less NFI value and less reliability value of the third factor were considered. To minimize limitations, the analysis will be repeated with different and great sample size. NFI value was sensitive to the sample size so that greater 300 applicants will be questioned in the future study.