Modular Characteristics and Mechanism of Action of Herbs for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment in Chinese Medicine
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a form of "thirst disease," or Xiaoke in Chinese, that was first referenced in Huangdi Neijing. The discovery of a Chinese herb delivers considerable benefits and has great potential for treating T2D. Despite the fact that a large number of publications have reported the role of TCM in the treatment of T2D, it is still unknown which Chinese herbs are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of T2D, what the common characteristics of these Chinese herbs are, and what the main active ingredients and molecular mechanisms of these commonly used herbs are. In this study, data mining, systematic pharmacology, and molecular docking technology were utilized. There were 170 distinct types of Chinese herbs discovered, 118 active components, and 238 common targets across medicine and T2D. Moreover, we discovered six hub proteins (TNF, MMP2, PTGS, CASP3, CASP8, and CASP9) and two of the herbs' most basic chemicals (Diosgenin and Formononetin) in TCM-mediated T2D suppression, as well as critical therapeutic pathways (immune inflammatory response, AGE-RAGE, and IL-17 pathway) linked to T2D Chinese herb therapy. These findings lay a solid platform for future diabetic medication research and development.