Data for: Intracellular hyaluronan: Importance for cellular functions
Hyaluronan-rich matrices are abundant in ECM and are involved in biological processes, such as cell growth and migration. Hyaluronan is synthesized by the hyaluronan synthase family of enzymes, HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3; the HAS1 and HAS3 genes give rise to different transcripts through alternative splicing, and the HAS2 gene to a non-coding RNA antisense transcript in addition to the protein-coding transcript. Biosynthesis of hyaluronan increases during inflammation and cancer and is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. In addition to extracellular hyaluronan-rich matrices, cytoplasmic and nuclear forms of hyaluronan have been detected in normal and pathological processes. Extra- and intra-cellular hyaluronan binds to hyaluronan binding proteins, such as CD44, RHAMM, CDC37 and USP17, affecting cellular behavior. Although neither the exact mechanisms by which hyaluronan is present in the intracellular compartments nor its function at these sites are currently understood, there are evidence that intracellular hyaluronan has important regulatory roles during cell cycle, cell motility, RNA translation and splicing, and autophagy.