Impact of E-government on Transparency, Accountability, and Reduction in Corruption: Evidence with Data Analysis from Emerging Economies
Abstract: E-government has given rise to several more spontaneous facilities than the previous government phenomenon to combat corruption in the early twenty-first century. Therefore, it become essential to investigate the effect of E-government implementation as a tool for corruption mitigation. In recent years, Transparency International ranked Bangladesh and Pakistan as one of the most corrupted countries. Consequently, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh developed the Digital Bangladesh plan on the country's 50th anniversary and Prime Minister of Pakistan introduced digital Pakistan policy in 2021. To witness outcomes, this study examined E-government transparency and accountability for the decrease of corruption. The modified version of the TAM model from previous research is proposed in this study. A total of 287 responses were examined using frequency, reliability, correlation, and regression analysis. Dr. Andrew Hayes' newly manifested Process Macro Model was employed for mediation analysis. The study finds substantial evidence for E-government in terms of corruption reduction, although transparency and accountability also impacted as mediators. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that E-government services, transparency, and accountability are significant predictors of corruption reduction. Finally, the paper illuminates E-government succession on reducing corruption, which can pave the way for future research. Hypotheses: H1: E-government positively influences behavioral intention through transparency of the government in emerging economies. H2: E-government will have a positive impact on behavioral intention through accountability in public organizations of emerging economies. H3: E-government certainly possesses the behavioral intention of inhabitants in emerging economies. H4: Transparency has a positive influence on behavioral intention. H5: Accountability positively influences behavioral intention. H6: Behavioral intention positively impacts the reduction of corruption.
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This study applied a survey questionnaire and an online data collection technique to collect data. The sample data in this study were acquired from two countries, and the participants were government officials and citizens from Bangladesh and Pakistan who could use the internet effectively and had knowledge and experience regarding key variables. We collected data from both government officials and the public at large functioning collaboratively. A total of 287 individuals actively participated in the survey, filled out their survey forms, and returned them to us. The questionnaires were sent to government officials through email, with the request that they fill them out and return them in response.