Published: 13 September 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/6dyk8xpck8.1
Alberto Armijo


Hysterosalpingo-foam sonography is a safe technique useful in assessing tubal patency and determining whether a patient can undergo artificial insemination (tubal patency) or in vitro fertilization (tubal occlusion). Leukocytoclastic vasculitis after hysterosalpingo-foam sonography is a rare but potentially serious consequence of this test. This rarely reported side effect of the technique and the rare but potential systemic consequences of leukocytoclastic vasculitis make it important to elucidate whether there is a causal relationship between hysterosalpingo-foam sonography and vasculitis. The main aim of this review is to investigate leukocytoclastic vasculitis after HyFoSy in more detail. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and other databases (Embase, Cochrane) from the introduction of hysterosalpingo-foam sonography until November 2022, with a last update in February 2023. Nine articles were identified by searching Medline via PubMed. We conducted two rounds of screening. We present a systematic review of leukocytoclastic vasculitis following tubal patency testing with histerosalpingo-foam sonography using ExEm Foam®. Due to the safety and tolerability of hysterosalpingo-foam sonography and the fact that side effects are extremely rare, studies with larger sample sizes and higher scientific quality are difficult to conduct. Nevertheless, this situation should be addressed in the near future.



Female Reproduction, Fertility, Gynecologic Ultrasound