Assessment of trace metals concentration and health risk implication by indigenous edible crab species consumed in south eastern Nigeria during covid-19 lockdown lockdown.
Despite the benefits of crab consumption, the bioaccumulation of trace metals in crabs can endanger consumer’s health. The consumption of crabs in South eastern Nigeria has received less attention. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Al, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in four common crab species collected from the bank of selected Streams during the covid-19 lockdown in south eastern Nigeria and associated health risks were analyzed for the consumers by evaluating estimated weekly intake (EWI), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to children, adolescents, and adults. In this study, 320 samples were collected in total. These metals and sediments showed a descending average content of Zn > Ni > Cu > As > Cd > Al > Pb > Cr > Hg respectively. EWI values of children, adolescents, and adults were all lower than provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) of all crab species. According to the toxic hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) calculations for trace metal contents in the soft tissue of crabs, mercury did not pose any risk on human health; whereas, the other determined trace metals gave the values of HI >1 and showed a possibility of risk on the long term. In all age groups, the consumption of U. tangeri, O. Africana, and C. armatum would lead to lifetime cancer risk due to As and Cd bioaccumulation.