Published: 26 May 2022| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/78ghfpj225.1
Leopoldo Muniz da Silva


This observational study has a retrospective cohort design. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all fasted patients undergoing endoscopy under deep sedation or general anesthesia from July 2021 to March 2022. All included patients completed the minimum two-hour fast for clear fluids and the minimum eight-hour fast for solids. All patients over 18 years of age presenting for elective diagnostic endoscopy were eligible. The exclusion criteria were as follows: gastric outlet obstruction; gastric volvulus; frank gastric bleeding; ASA-PS (American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status) ≥ IV; recent abdominal surgery (last than 2 months); emergency endoscopy therapeutic procedures; combined surgical procedures with endoscopy; chronic renal failure; chronic liver disease; achalasia; Zenker's diverticulum; linitis plastica; multiple myeloma; systemic lupus erythematosus and other collagenosis; pregnancy; chronic opioid use; drug addiction; use of vasoactive agents; patients admitted to the intensive care unit; ingestion of medication known to affect gastric emptying, such as tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, pro-kinetics, histamine type 2 receptor antagonists and incomplete medical records. Patients using other GLP-1 receptor agonists than semaglutide and oral semaglutide were also excluded. The primary outcome was the presence of any amount of solid content from the pharynx to the pylorus or liquid content with an aspirated volume>0.8 mL/Kg. With the purpose of establishing a possible "at risk stomach", we assumed that 0.8 mL.kg−1 would characterize a higher risk for pulmonary aspiration.



Anesthesiology, Epidemiology