Glyphosate but not Roundup harm earthworms
Dependent variables for worms include: body mass, stress-test survival time, and mortality. Dependent variables for microbes include: microbe biomass, fungal biomass, the difference between initial and final biomass for microbes and fungus. Independent variables include treatment: exposure to Roundup Ready to Use, Roundup Superconcentrate, pure glyphosate, and nothing. Additional variables include tank number. Each treatment had three replicates and those are reflected in tank number.