Emerging implications of bacterial biofilm in cancer biology
Recent insights have unveiled exciting opportunities to explore the intricate interplay between bacterial biofilms, tumor cells, and the immune system, offering new perspectives on cancer biology. The implications of bacterial biofilms in this context are remarkably multifaceted. Biofilms can promote tumor growth and invasiveness by inducing chronic inflammation, remodeling the extracellular matrix, and modulating the immune response, which promotes cancer development. Recent evidence has illustrated the role of specific bacteria, such as Salmonella typhi in gall bladder cancer, Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in oral cancer. These studies have revealed that these bacteria are more abundant in cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. Moreover, these bacteria form biofilms and exhibit resistance to cancer therapy. In this review, we intend to explore the recent updates, the myriad influences of various bacteria, and the potential molecular pathways by which bacterial biofilms contribute to cancer development.