Fear of Falling Avoidance Behaviors in Older Adults
In a cross-sectional study, a total of 203 people aged over 60 years were recruited in Tehran and assessed using the Fear of Falling Avoidance Behaviors Questionnaire, Falls Efficacy Scale (FES-1), and Life Habits tests (Life-H). Data were used to measure the prevalence of fear of falling and its correlation with life habits.
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A total of 203 elderly people (over 60 years), with and without a history of falling were recruited by availability  from Karaj and Tehran elderly people considering inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were: 1. Willingness to take part in the study, 2. age 60 or older, 3. absence of a psychological disorder, and 4. having a normal cognitive status i.e. the MMSE score above 22 in literate people and above 17 in illiterate people. Data collection: Data collection was conducted in a quiet room with proper lighting and ventilation or in a calm and relaxed place. There were five tools for collecting data including: 1. MMSE with 6 subscales for orientation, registration, attention, calculation, and language and praxis tests was used to estimate the participant's cognitive abilities. 2. A questionnaire within which demographic data included age, gender, marital status, and history of psychological disorders was collected. 3. The FFABQ was fulfilled either by interviewing (for illiterate or disabled people) or by submitting to the subjects (literate and capable people) and they individually answered and completed the FFABQ Questionnaire. 4. Fall-Efficiency Scale Questionnaire International Form (FES-I): This questionnaire consisted of 16 items. The items in this questionnaire have 4 options ranging from "I'm not worried at all" to "I'm completely worried". 5• • Life Habits Questionnaire (Life-H): this test has two general categories of daily activities and social roles, each one consisted of 6 subscales. Daily activities include: nutrition, health, personal care, communication, housework and mobility, and social roles include: responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, social life, education, employment, and recreation. This questionnaire has 77 items. Statistics: The normality of data was examined by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Spearman Correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relation between the two questionnaires, fear of falling, and demographic characters such as age, gender, education, and falling history. P<0.05 was considered significant.