Compression therapy in venous ulcers with cicatrization influenced by individual aspects: cluster analysis in a service specialized in chronic wounds
Venous Ulcers (VU) are wounds that are difficult to heal, an outcome considered to be the main goal in the treatment, often carried out in Primary Health Care (PHC) or in services specialized in injuries. Objective: to verify the association and interrelationship between sociodemographic, health, clinical and care aspects with the outcome of VU treatment in patients treated at a service specialized in wounds. Methods: longitudinal, observational study carried out at a chronic injury treatment center linked to the PHC. Socio-demographic aspects, health status and habits, clinical and care aspects of patients with VU, followed at the service for a period of one year, were analyzed. Data collection took place in a face-to-face interview format, in two moments inside the specialized service's office. The first moment of collection (T1) took place between August and October 2020, and the second (T2) between September and November 2021, by a team composed of postgraduate master's and doctoral students in health sciences, one doctor and two nurses who were previously trained. A characterization form of sociodemographic, health, clinical and care aspects was applied, structured with closed questions and divided into response categories. This instrument was developed by the researchers themselves and resulted in the evaluation of four aspects: “Sociodemographic Aspect”, “Health Status and Habits”, “Clinical Aspect of VU” and “Aspect of VU Care”. Results: the sample consisted of 103 participants, some of whom completed the study while still undergoing treatment – Treatment Group (TG/ n=60) and others had VU healing – Healing Group (GC/ n=43). We found an association between sociodemographic, health, clinical and care aspects with the healing outcome (GC). There was a moderate correlation between the predisposing factors for healing in the sociodemographic and health habits group. Among the sociodemographic factors, the high age group and those in health stood out, the reduction in alcoholism/smoking seemed to be the greatest influencer for healing, in addition to follow-up in a specialized service and the use of compression therapy. Conclusions: With these results, it was possible to confirm the hypothesis that these aspects are associated with VU healing and that the protective factors related to its healing interacted with each other, contributing to a positive outcome after one year of treatment.
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico