Published: 21 May 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/7gf9v32wfw.1
muzher mahdi aldoury


The aim of the present work is to investigate the possibility of removing hardness from the groundwater by electromagnetic polarization. Groundwater samples were taken from Samarra city, Salah al-Din Governorate. Laboratory apparatus has been designed and constructed in order to perform the present work. Three experimental schemes are utilized to cover the operating parameters which are; contact time (5 - 60 sec), inlet hardness concentration (800 - 1800 mg/L) and magnetic flux intensity (0.5 - 1.25 T). The laboratory results showed that the hardness removal efficiency ranged from 3.25 to 35.2%, while the percentage of dissolved solids removal did not exceed 7%. The highest hardness removal is 35.2% was obtained at a contact time of 40-60 seconds, a magnetic flux intensity of 1.25 Tesla, and an internal hardness concentration of 800 mg/L. Moreover, the addition of γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 gives no improvement in hardness and TDS removal. It seems that the magnetic force affects mainly carbonates. Box Wilson model is applied to develop mathematical equations that relate to the operating parameters and the results showed that the calculated values fit well with the experimental data. TEM, XRD, and SEM tests were performed for the groundwater before and after treatment. These tests indicated that magnetic treatment affects the shape and size of CaCO3 crystals.


Steps to reproduce

samples of groundwater from sammarra governate in iraq were taken. these samples are of different hardness and treated under various operating conditions including magnetic field strength and the dose of nanoparticles


Tikrit University


Electromagnetics, Hardness, Effluent Treatment