Green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles induces apoptosis and autophagy by suppressing P13K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in osteosarcoma MG63 cells
The goal of this investigation was to assess the apoptosis and autophagy inducing pathway of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) stabilized from Solanum xanthocarpum plant extract on human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. The ZnO NPs were evaluated using UV spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The ZnO NPs induced cytotoxicity on MG63 cells was scrutinized by MTT assay, and Real Time-PCR analyzed apoptotic markers expression. The results showed that ZnO NPs treatment stablized concentration-dependent toxicity, increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced activity of antioxidants, augmented ROS production, and reduced MMP. The ZnO NPs treatment downregulated Bcl-2 expression, however, activated the expression of p53, Bax, Caspase-3,8&9 apoptotic members in MG63 cells. Moreover, the ZnO NPs treatment significantly inhibited the P13K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and induced the LC3 and beclin-1 expression in MG63 cells. Consequently, ZnO NPs induced apoptosis and autophagy by modulating apoptotic and autophagy-related biomarkers. As a result, with a suitable clinical trial, S. xanthocarpum stabilized ZnO NPs could be used to treat osteosarcoma.