Infant diarrheal disease in rhesus macaques impedes microbiome maturation is linked to uncultured Campylobacter species - Supplemental Source Data
Diarrheal diseases remain one of the leading causes of death for children under 5 globally, disproportionately impacting those living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Campylobacter spp., a zoonotic pathogen, is one of the leading causes of food-borne infection in humans. Novel Campylobacter spp., yet to be cultured, contribute to the total burden in diarrheal disease in children living in LMIC thus hampering interventions. We performed microbiome profiling and metagenomic genome assembly on samples collected from over 100 infant rhesus macaques longitudinally and during cases of clinical diarrhea within the first year of life. Acute diarrhea was associated with long-lasting taxonomic and functional shifts of the infant gut microbiome indicative of microbiome immaturity. We constructed 36 Campylobacter metagenomic assembled genomes (MAGs), many of which fell within 4 yet to be cultured species. Finally, we compared the uncultured Campylobacter MAGs assembled from infant macaques with publicly available human metagenomes to show that these uncultured species are also found in human fecal samples from LMIC. These data highlight the importance of unculturable Campylobacter spp. as an important target for reducing disease burden in LMIC children.