CP3d: A comprehensive Euler-Lagrange solver for direct numerical simulation of particle-laden flows
We present a comprehensive Euler-Lagrange solver, CP3d, for the direct numerical simulation of particle-laden flows. The solver can handle one-way, two-way, interface-unresolved four-way and interface-resolved coupling regime. To make the solver versatile, different numerical approaches are available for fluid, particle as well as the coupling sub-solver. For the sake of computational accuracy and efficiency, a third-order exponential approximation method is proposed for Basset history force in interface-unresolved regime, and a new simplified lubrication force model based on the averaged integration is utilized in interface-resolved simulation to account for the short-range hydrodynamic force. The volume integration approach is also modified to adapt the staggered mesh configuration. The present solver is intensively validated against several benchmarks. A 2D pencil-like domain decomposition is implemented for parallel communication. The resulting solver is able to simulate large scale cases with billions of grid points and millions of moving particles in interface-resolved four-way regime, using only hundreds of computational cores. In addition, a nearly perfect linear strong scaling performance is achieved. In our test, CP3d is more than ten times faster than other similar solver reported in the literature.