Article - Genetic polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of leptin (rs7799039) and adiponectin (rs17300539) are associated with obesity in children and adolescents
Abstract The objective of the present study was to compare anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal parameters, and the presence of genetic polymorphisms of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α among eutrophic and obese children and adolescents. This is a case-control study with 104 children and adolescents, with an average age of 10 ± 2 years, 58 of whom were obese and 46 eutrophic. The declared anthropometric parameters black color, obese parents, hypertensive parents, and early weaning, are associated with obesity. Increased levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, CRP-U, AST, ALT, GGT, T4 Free, IGF- 1, uric acid, and low levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a higher chance of obesity. The presence of AG / AA polymorphisms in the leptin is associated with a 290% (OR: 3.9) higher chance of obesity and for adiponectin genes, chances are 740% (OR: 8.4) higher. In these obese children and adolescents with AG / AA haplotypes, serum leptin levels were increased and adiponectin levels were decreased about eutrophic ones, whereas serum TNF-α levels did not change. We conclude that the AG / AA polymorphisms in the leptin and adiponectin genes alter the serum levels of these adipokines and predispose to obesity, and many anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal markers are altered, demonstrating early consequences for the health of these children and adolescents. Key-words: overweight, adipokines, childhood, genes, biomarkers.