GPS of smartphones DATA
Vehicle GPS data was collected through the participation of university students who traveled along the route. These students were not behind the steering wheel but rather in the passenger seat, and did not notify the driver of the sampling procedure. The mobile applications used in this study recorded speeds and geographic coordinates at one-second intervals and with 5m position accuracy. The mobile application functionally reported all of the recorded data. Before taking their trip, participating students downloaded the mobile application, along with its user manual guide, from a predesigned website. Having completed the trip, they uploaded the data file onto the same website. Following review, any corrupted files were removed. Moreover, information regarding the metropolitan area and the intersections was excluded since they were not within the scope of this study. Finally, a total of 90 out of 100 usable files were extracted.