Production data from a small bakery manufacturing line
Finding an optimal production schedule is a crucial part in improving manufacturing efficiency. Data collected from a real production line serves as the process's starting point. It provides details on the products, the processing procedures, how long they take, and the machines needed to carry out these steps. The production schedule is simulated using a flow shop model. The manufacturing environment determines the sort of flow shop model. The simplest model is a permutation flow shop, where all products are processed by machines in the same order. The majority of production systems in practice contain numerous distinctive constraints that make models quite complex. The "no-wait" flow shop model refers to a particular type of flow shop model where no waiting period is permitted between two successive stages of a product. A hybrid no-wait flow shop scheduling model can be used to explain the production environment in bakeries. Multiple machines are accessible here for a single processing stage, such as oven A or oven B for baking a product. Products' processing stages may not be organized in the same order depending on the recipe. Occasionally, the same dough is used to make several different bakery products. In these situations, bakers divide the dough after a few preliminary processing steps and carry out the remaining steps independently in accordance with the product recipes. Baking ovens need a lot of energy, and using them even when only partially occupied wastes energy. Therefore, in order to conserve energy, baking of a number of products may occasionally be conducted together that followed separate processing paths. The products are arranged into groups based on their inherent interdependence, such as baking or beginning steps being performed concurrently. At any stage of the production process, one product from this group may be processed. However, it influences the start time for the remaining products in the same group. Small and medium-sized bakeries rely on manual operation for many processing tasks. Therefore, manual tasks must be distributed among staff in order to continue the production without interruption. Some processing tasks need the use of two machines, or one machine and one employee at the same time. To prevent ingredient mixing, a machine may need to be cleaned after processing a product. For instance, after kneading dough containing oil seeds, a kneader is cleaned.