# SBETHE: Stopping powers of materials for swift charged particles from the corrected Bethe formula

## Description

The Fortran program sbethe calculates the stopping power of materials for swift charged particles with small charges (electrons, muons, protons, their antiparticles, and alphas). The electronic stopping power is computed from the corrected Bethe formula, with the shell correction derived from numerical calculations with the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) for atoms, which were based on an independent-electron model with the Dirac–Hartree–Fock–Slater self-consistent potential for the ground-state configuration of the target atom. The density effect correction is evaluated from an empirical optical oscillator strength (OOS) model based on atomic subshell contributions obtained from PWBA calculations. For projectiles heavier than the electron, the Barkas correction is evaluated from the OOS model, and the Lindhard–Sørensen correction is estimated from an accurate parameterization of its numerical values. The calculated electronic stopping power is completely determined by a single empirical parameter, the mean excitation energy or I value of the material. The radiative stopping power for electrons, and positrons, is evaluated by means of Seltzer and Berger's cross section tables for bremsstrahlung emission. The program yields reliable stopping powers and particle ranges for arbitrary materials and projectiles with kinetic energy larger than a certain cutoff value E_cut, which is specific of each projectile kind. The program is accompanied by an extensive database that contains tables of relevant energy-dependent atomic quantities for all the elements from hydrogen to einsteinium. sbethe may be used to generate basic information for dosimetry calculations and Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport, and as a pedagogical tool.