Panel Study of Korean Children - a version of KWK, JLW, BK.

Published: 29 November 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/82ckn4ptzm.1
Kay Kim


This study investigated how broader parental factors including parental happiness, parental play engagement, and parenting stress are related to Korean children’s happiness and weight status across three years via indirect pathways through the children’s energy-related behaviors of healthy and unhealthy food intake, physical activity, and screen time. Data from 1551 Korean parent pairs and 7-yaer-old children in the Panel Study on Korean Children were analyzed. Path analysis and gender-based structural equation modeling were conducted. Maternal happiness was negatively related to child screen time. Maternal play engagement showed positive concurrent associations with child healthy food intake and physical activity and negative associations with screen time. Maternal parenting stress was negatively related to child healthy eating. There was one significant finding related to fathers’ role on children’s energy-related behaviors, happiness, and weight status: the positive association between parental happiness and boys’ unhealthy food intake. Child screen time was positively related to child weight status and negatively to child happiness at each age. Broader maternal parenting factors can serve as a protective factor for childhood happiness and weight status in 7-to 9-year-olds through being associated with a reduction in child screen time.


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Data are from Wave 8 through 10 (child ages 7 – 9) of the publicly available data set from the Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC) conducted by the Korean Institute of Child Care and Education (Panel Study on Korean Children, 2018). The PSKC is a prospective longitudinal survey of a representative national cohort sample of children born between April and July 2008 and their parents. It was designed to collect comprehensive data on the characteristics of children, parents, families, and local communities as well as the effectiveness of childcare policies in Korea. The first wave of PSKC enrolling 2150 families was conducted in 2008, and follow-up surveys have been performed annually and are still ongoing. Participants are ethnically highly homogenous reflecting Korean society. Only mothers who could communicate in Korean were invited at the time of child delivery. Also, mothers and newborns with serious health issues were excluded. The number of responding families was 1598 in Wave 8 in 2016 (child age 7), 1525 in Wave 9 in 2017 (child age 8), and 1484 in Wave 10 in 2018 (child age 9). Written informed consent was obtained from each adult participant at the time of recruitment. The main care giver provided consent for their child’s participation in the study. Methodological details of the PSKC have been reported elsewhere (Bahk et al., 2015). Bahk, J., Yun, S. C., Kim, Y. and Khang, Y. H. (2015). Impact of unintended pregnancy on maternal mental health: a causal analysis using follow up data of the panel study on Korean Children (PSKC). BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(1). Panel Study on Korean Children. (2018). Panel Study on Korean Children . [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].


University of California Merced


Child Health