Normative Value of Timed Up and Go test in Healthy Adults with Flatfoot: An observational study

Published: 15 June 2020| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/8mskj36xbj.1


ABSTRACT Background: In flatfoot, medial longitudinal arch is relaxed or descend downwards or it could be completely lost leading to functional and structural deformity so the arch is not able to absorb impacted forces and reduce the sense of balance which in turn leads to decreased functional stability while walking and running. Purpose:Previous literature shows that dynamic balance is affected in individuals with flat foot and TUG is widely used in clinical practice to assess dynamic balance and functional mobility.The normal values of TUGhave been known in geriatric and paediatric population .In adults, the normative value of TUG is known for individuals with normal foot arch, as best of our knowledge data is missing for subjects with flat foot in healthy adult population, therefore the present study was conducted. Material and Methods:Total sixty participants of age group 18 to 25 years with flatfoot were recruited on the basis of inclusion criteria that includes navicular drop less than 9mm. Demographic data was taken and TUG was performed by standing up out of a chair, walking 3 m, turning around, walking back to the chair, and sitting down. Results:The result findings of the total 60 subjects were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation as the data follows normal distribution. The present study shows a normative range 6.07-11.53 seconds with mean and standard deviation of 8.23 ±1.15 in age group of 18 to 25 years among asymptomatic adults with flat foot. This study also finds the normative reference value for underweight, Normal and overweight and obese individuals. In underweight group, mean TUG value is 8.19±1.43 with range 6.64-11.53 seconds. In normal weight group, mean TUG value is 8.16±1.05 with range 6.07- 10.55 seconds and in obese and overweight group, mean TUG value is 8.42±1.25 with range of 6.58-10.50 seconds. Conclusion: This study results gave the normative reference value for the healthy adults with flatfoot in age group 18-25 years. The TUG may have utility for primary care providers as they assess and monitor dynamic balance in younger adults with flatfoot, especially according their BMI. Keywords:Flatfoot; Body Mass Index; Foot; Reference values.



Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation


Foot, Walking Distance, Body Mass Index