Fog water quality in Villa María Lomas, Lima, Peru, during 2015
Fog water harvesting is an alternative to get freshwater in zones where drinking water access is limited or non-existent. Nonetheless, atmospheric pollution in places where fog is transported can contaminate fog water. Fog is the principal water supply in some ecosystems in Lima called “Lomas”. Villa María “Lomas” are one of those, but here exists contamination by a cement factory, pig farms, garbage burning and the general air pollution in Lima. Evaluate the fog water quality in “Villa María” Lomas, contrasting water monitoring results with Peruvian regulations. Seven Standard Fog Collectors were used to collect fog water in the study area. Fog water samples were taken once per month, from August to October 2015. Cations, anions and trace elements in water fog samples were analyzed by ICP-OES, Ion Chromatography and ICP-MS respectively. Analysis of air mass trajectories, spatial analysis of the distribution of pollutants, and the chemical components contribution analysis by emission sources were carried out to determine the sources of contamination of the fog water. Levels of aluminium, arsenic, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, iron and lead are founded in some samples of water fog, exceeding the pollutants values according to Peruvian regulations. The samples taken near the cement factory contain most of mentioned pollutants and the highest levels of arsenic. High levels of aluminum and iron were associated with the dragging of soil particles from Villa María Lomas, while the main source of contamination of fog water by lead is the air pollution of Metropolitan Lima.