Development of an inexpensive and rapidly preparable enzymatic pencil graphite biosensor for monitoring of glyphosate in waters
Biosensor development: 1) Experimental design (membrane composition and pencil mine). 2) Characterization by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and FTIR. 3) Optimization tests of the biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (enzyme concentration, pH, ionic strength, and mediator concentration). 4) Amperometric testing of the optimized biosensor for hydrogen peroxide, calculation of limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Michaelis-Menten constant. 5) Enzymatic inhibition mechanism tests against glyphosate. 6) Amperometric test of the biosensor with glyphosate, analytical curves, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. 7) Selectivity tests with other pesticides, organic acids, and inorganic salts. 8) Tests on river and tap water samples.