Dialect Diversity of Modern Spanish: Origins and Classification
As part of this study, we view dialect as a language variant used as a communicative tool by people united by geographical, social, or professional criterion. The dialect is an element of the larger language system (national language), is related to its other components, as well as to other dialects. We emphasize that specialists usually highlight three stages of dialectology development. At the early (pre-scientific) stage, future science begins to be formed within the framework of ethnography, which learns language in parallel with other material and intangible categories (oral folk creativity, folk painting, etc.). At the next stage of its evolution, dialectology ceases to enter the structure of ethnography, transforming into an autonomous section of linguistics, which gives list of certain linguistic features (primarily at the phonetic level, as well). These characteristics serve as the basis for systematization of speakers and adverbs. At both stages, the dialect is seen in its opposition to the literary ("standard") language. The third stage is characterized by the study of dialect inthe context of language perception as a special system. In national dialectological concepts, this approach can take different forms and have different practical values. It is noted that the key concept in the science of dialects is the concept of "dialect feature" (sign, distinction). In a topographic context, it is also appropriate to use the term "isogloss". Since dialectology was born, the dialect feature refers only to characteristics that make it possible to distinguish the language of peasants from the language in which educated citizens communicate.
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language dialect dialectology dialect feature dialect classification