Antimicrobial, Alamar blue cell viability, ALP, OC and monocyte response
Composite scaffolds with a different ratio of HA:BG composition including 100:0 (HB 0 S), 90:10 (HB 10 S), 80:20 (HB 20 S) and 70:30 (HB 30 S) were fabricated using low-pressure spark plasma sintering (SPSed) technique. Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded on these HA-BG composite scaffolds and the subsequent cell proliferation was measured using alamar blue cell viability assay on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The osteoinduction property of these composite scaffolds without the presence of any exogenous osteogenic factors was tested based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Osteocalcin (OC) secretion on day 5, 10, 15 and 20. The secretion of osteogenic matrix such as BMP2, type 1 collagen and osterix was measured using confocal imaging. A foreign body reaction of immune cells against these scaffolds was investigated using monocyte transwell migration in response to mediators derived from scaffold-monocyte conditioned media.