Access, Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) project conducted by Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (i.e. IHME, 2015) in collaboration with Ghana Health Service
The data is sourced from the 2015 Access, Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) project conducted by Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (i.e. IHME, 2015) in conjunction with Ghana Health Service. From the sample of 138 primary health care facilities (PHCs), 47 were excluded for two main reasons. While some PHCs excluded were observed for less than three years (insert footnote), others had missing data for some of the years. The final unbalanced panel of 428 observations comprises of 75 PHCs observed for all the 5-year period; five PHCs observed over a 4-year period; and 11 PHCs observed over a 3-year period
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Since the study is measuring efficiency in a cost function framework, total operating costs [represented as costs ( c ) in the model] is used as the dependent variable. The total costs are made up of employee compensations and service expenses. The service expenses include costs such as material and consumables costs, travel and transportation expenses, drugs and vaccines costs, and repairs and maintenance costs. Accordingly, we include two input prices in our cost functions, viz, wage [represented as labour price ( w1 )] and service input price (w2 ). The wage input price variable for PHC i at time t is measured by dividing the total annual wage by the total number of workers while the service input price is obtained by dividing the total service cost by the sum of the seven output variables. We also included a trend variable, t = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for the years 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The data contains a sample of the two main types of primary healthcare facilities – CHPS and Health Centers.