Spatial and temporal sampling biases and spatial scale affect species distribution models and applicability to conservation management

Published: 7 January 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/9mmbmzjwxp.1
Lydia Soifer,


We used Maxent to model the distribution of Cypripedium acaule in North Carolina using records from 1) publicly available databases (GBIF and iNaturalist) and 2) herbaria. We compared distribution models made with the different sets of occurrence records to evaluate how spatial and temporal biases in records affect model results. The data provided here include the original iNaturalist dataset (prior to cleaning as described in our methods) and the code for the evaluation of models based on ground-truthed populations. We cannot provide the original herbaria dataset because location records are kept in confidence due to poaching concerns.


Steps to reproduce

Data cannot be fully reproduced because coordinates for Cypripedium acaule populations from herbarium and that the authors collected in the field cannot be made publicly available due to poaching concerns. The code can be run using the provided files for all data that can be made publicly available.


Davidson College


Conservation, Biogeography, Spatial Ecology