Renewable energy general data: Germany, Denmark, and the UK- Time series
Renewable energy (RE) is one of the most popular public policy orientations worldwide. Compared to some other countries and continents, Europe has an early awareness of energy and environmental problems in general. At the theoretical level, free-market environmentalism indicates that based on the principle of private property rights, with fewer state interventionist and regulation policies, the entrepreneurs as the driving force of the market economy can provide better services to meet the necessity of offering RE to protect the environment more effectively. Previous studies considered that Germany, Denmark, and the United Kingdom have made some achievements in using the market to develop RE. However, their research did not analyze the three countries’ RE conditions from free-market environmentalism. Based on our review of the principle of free-market environmentalism, this paper originally provides an empirical study of how Germany, Denmark, and the United Kingdom have partly conducted free-market-oriented policy to successfully achieve their policy goal of RE since the 1990s on a practical level. The paper also warns that the state intervention policies such as taxation, state subsidies, and industry access restrictions can impede these three countries’ RE targets. Also, our research provides policy suggestions to policymakers on the importance of implementing free-market environmentalism to provide more efficient RE in the post-Covid-19 era.