Social Entrepreneurship Measurement Framework for Developing Countries
This study aims to propose and validate with experts a framework with elements for measuring social entrepreneurship for developing countries. The proposed model was designed based on a literature review of entrepreneurship models indexed in Web of Science and Scopus databases. The dimensions associated with social entrepreneurship and their potential analysis categories were identified, composing a preliminary framework of indicators validated by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique. The analysis tool was a four dimensions survey, and their sub-dimensions, resulting in 59 variables. It was available in Portuguese and English, which allowed international participation, and sent via e-mail to the respondents. A Likert-type scale was adopted, ranging from 1 to 7, where 1 is the least important and 7 the most important for a indicator. At the end of each group of questions, an open-ended question was included for suggestions and comments. The Delphi method was implemented in two rounds, and it was established as insertion criteria that at least 80% responses were equal or higher than 5. After the first data analysis round, the indicators were submitted to a second round. Initially, the indicators with consensus equal to or greater than 80% were evaluated, then those that did not reach consensus in the first round. In both cases, the specialist was asked to decide whether the indicator should be included or excluded. The analysis of the responses from the second round was carried out using the same level of consensus in first round (80%), for both inclusion and exclusion of the item in the model. After two rounds of Delphis questionnaires, it was possible to reach the most important indicators for the intended evaluation. Therefore, 46 out of 59 (77.97%) initially proposed indicators were taken into consideration to explain social entrepreneurship in developing countries. The model includes elements of entrepreneurship measurement related to the individual and organizational level, composing four dimensions, namely: Social Entrepreneurial Intention, Social Entrepreneurial Orientation, Processes, and Outcomes. It recognizes that social entrepreneurship in developing countries depends on the social context, which is reflected in the willingness to solve society's problems, generating not only economic value, but also social and environmental value as a result.