Inhibitory effects of lactoferrin on pulmonary inflammatory processes induced by lipopolysaccharide through modulating the TLR4-related pathway
This study tested the ability of lactoferrin to modulate pulmonary inflammation. To construct in vitro and in vivo inflammatory lung models, cells from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL), and mice (CD-1) were intratracheally administrated LPS [10 mg/kg of body weight (BW), tracheal lumen injection], respectively. The A549 cells were preincubated with lactoferrin (10 mg/mL), and the mice were intraperitoneally injected with lactoferrin (100 mg/kg of BW), followed by LPS treatment. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in culture medium of A549 cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the mice were determined using enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. The toll-like receptor 4–related pathway (TLR4/MyD88/IRAK1/TRAF6/ NFkB was determined at gene and protein expression levels in A549 cells and mouse lung tissue. Results showed that LPS treatment significantly elevated the concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in the A549 cell culture medium and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the mice; it also elevated both the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4 and the TLR4 downstream factors in A549 cells and mouse lung tissue. Nevertheless, lactoferrin apparently depressed the releases of IL-1β and TNF-α from A549 cells and lung tissues stimulated by LPS, and significantly suppressed the TLR4 signaling pathway. Lactoferrin also promoted the enhancement of miR-146a expression in A549 cells and mouse lung tissue. Moreover, 100°C heating for 3 min caused total loss of the previously listed bioactivity of lactoferrin. Collectively, we proved that lactoferrin intervened in LPS-induced inflammation in the pulmonary cell model and in the mouse model, through inhibiting the TLR4-related pathway.