Holocene variability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation inferred from Chinese speleothem δ18O records

Published: 25 April 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/c4p79fvmhk.1
Haowen Fan, Zunyu Hu, Yuhui Liu, Mengyu Wang, Chaoyong Hu


The current reconstructions of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the key internal drivers of climate variability in the Holocene, primarily rely on marine sediment proxies. However, the limited resolution of these records makes it difficult to precisely understand the short-term dynamics of the PDO and AMO, and consequently, their influence on global climate. This study unveils two new Holocene reconstructions of AMO and PDO derived from a large-scale compilation of speleothem isotope records (δ18Os) from Chinese monsoon region, in which spatial patterns of summer rainfall are generally accepted as good indicators of internal variability over the last millennium. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to Chinese δ18Os records identifies the first principal component as representative of Holocene Asian monsoon (AM) variation. This data-driven approach reveals a significant shift in hydroclimatic conditions after 8.2 ka, potentially providing valuable insights into the underlying forcing mechanisms driving these changes. The remanent components, which show spatial rainfall patterns, are effectively validated through independent records of AMO and PDO derived from the previous paleo-proxy based reconstructions and model simulations. The present reconstructions suggest a significantly enhanced stability of the AMO and PDO in the middle Holocene, which may explain the concurrent more stable and optimum climate observed in the AM region. These findings also imply that the Holocene AM intensity recorded in Chinese cave records is largely controlled by external forcing, whereas the regionally heterogenous rainfall is regulated by internal variability. The successful attempt on the Holocene AMO and PDO reconstructions indicates an effective isolation between different modes of climate variability from paleoclimate records.



Climate Change, Holocene, Monsoon


National Natural Science Foundation of China


National Natural Science Foundation of China


China Postdoctoral Science Foundation