Sleeve Gastrectomy Ameliorates Diabetes-related Spleen Damage by Improving Oxidative Stress Status in Diabetic Obese Rats
Purpose: Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathogenic mediators in diabetes-related organ damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that immunodeficiency in diabetes is associated with diabetes-induced spleen damage. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been proved to improve diabetes and its multiple associated complications. However, the ameliorative role of SG against spleen damage in diabetes has not been investigated. Materials and Methods: Animal model of diabetic obese rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with sham operation and SG. Metabolic parameters were measured and the morphological and histopathological changes, status of oxidative stress and levels of inflammatory factors were evaluated. Results: SG reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic obese rats. SG significantly reversed splenic atrophy and alleviated abnormalities of white and red pulp. Additionally, SG also reversed the increased splenocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, indicators of oxidative stress including reactive oxygen species (ROS), Nitric Oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonylation were reduced, and the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and CAT were improved after SG. The mRNA expression of inflammatory factors in SG groups such as TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 was also significantly reduced. Conclusion: SG ameliorates diabetes-related splenic injury by restoring the balance between oxidative stress process and antioxidant defense systems as well as reducing inflammation in the spleen. These findings indicate that SG is an appropriate therapeutic strategy for diabetes-related spleen damage.