Sensitivity enhancement and the role of orientation in enzyme immunosorbent assay based on half fragment antibodies
The site-directed antibody immobilization on the capture surface of immunosensor by free thiols represents a promising innovation for immunochemical methods due to simplicity of accomplishment and low cost compared to other techniques. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antibody reduction, combined or not with orientation, on the enhancement of the sensitivity of the solid-phase immunoassays. Antigen binding capacity of reduced antibodies was tested by immunosorbent assays performed on polystyrene or maleimide activated microplates: these surfaces allowed a random or oriented binding or reduced antibodies, respectively. Whole antibodies were used as control in all experiments. Western blot highlighted that reduction induced some structural rearrangements. Reduced antibodies showed a greater antigen-binding capacity in comparison to the whole antibodies even when randomly physisorbed on polystyrene surfaces. Orientation of reduced antibodies on maleimide surface improved the reproducibility of the assay decreasing the CV% to 0.2%- 0.7% in comparison to 0.9%-15% of reduced antibodies on polystyrene. In conclusion, results highlighted the enhancement of immunoassay sensitivity with a synergy of reduction and orientation with an increase of affinity for the antigen and a decrease of CV, respectively.
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Antibody reduction 1 mg/ml antibody was reduced by 53 mM 2-mercaptoethylammine in Dulbecco's PBS for 90 minutes at 37°C in mild agitation Assessment of the antigen binding capacity of whole and reduced anti-HRP The antigen binding capacity of whole or reduced anti-HRP was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microplates were coated with 100 µl of intact or reduced anti-HRP antibody at the concentration of 50 µg/ml in 10 mM PBS-EDTA. Plates were incubated for 2 hours and then washed threefold with 200 µl of PBS-T. Nonspecific binding was blocked with 5% (w/v, 200 µl) non-fat milk/PBS-T for 1 h, and then washed. Antigen, the enzyme HRP (100 µl/well) were incubated for 1 h followed by three washing steps. The presence of HRP were revealed using 1 mg/ml OPD in 50 mM phosphate-citric acid pH 5 containing 1 µl/ml of 33% hydrogen peroxide. Absorbance was detected at 450 nm using the plate reader Multiskan GO. All incubation steps were carried out at room temperature. Assessment of the antigen binding capacity of physisorbed or oriented antibodies The antigen binding capacity of whole or reduced antibodies was tested both on polystyrene and maleimide activated microplates by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). Bio-Plex Pro™ Flat Bottom Plates 96-well microplates or Pierce™ Maleimide Activated Plates were rinsed with 200 µl of PBS containing TWEEN® 20 0.01% w/v (PBS-T) and then were coated with 100 µl of 50 µg/ml whole or reduced anti-FPSA in PBS containing 10 mM EDTA. Plates were incubated for 2 hours, and excess coating solution was removed by three washing steps with 200 µl of PBS-T. Nonspecific binding of polystyrene microplates was blocked with 200 µl of 5% (w/v) non-fat milk solubilized in PBS-T for 1 h, and then washed as described; to inactivate excess maleimide groups, plates were then incubated for 1 hour at room temperature with cysteine solution at 10µg/ml. Cysteine solution were freshly prepared before each experiment. The calibrator S1 of the VIDAS® FPSA assay diluted at different concentrations in PBS (0,072 ng/ml; 0,725 ng/m; 1,45 ng/ml; 3,62 ng/ml and 7,25 ng/ml) was used as sample. PBS was used as negative control. Samples were incubated for 1 h at room temperature followed by three washing steps to remove the unbound antigen. All the samples were tested in quadruplicate. Finally 200 µl per well of VIDAS® optical substrate was added. The fluorescence generated was measured after 20 minutes incubation time on Fluoroskan Ascent (Thermo Fisher Scientific. Waltham, MA, USA) with 20 msec integration time, excitation wavelength at 390 nm and emission at 460 nm. All incubation steps were carried out at room