Data for: The expression of obligation in student academic writing
The data in the attached Excel file contains 100-line samples of concordances for 8 different forms which are used to express obligation. The lines were retrieved from the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus using the random sample function on the Sketch Engine interface. The sorting was carried out in 2 steps. Firstly, each line was read to see if it expressed obligation or not. Then, those lines classified as expressing obligation were categorised according to a four-way functional categorisation based on Hyland (2002), according to whether they expressed RW (real world), RF (research focus), CR (cognitive rhetorical) or CE (cognitive emphatic) meanings.