Clinical Profile of Multiple Myeloma in National Oncology Center, Aden, Yemen
Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder characterized by the proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells derived from β-cells in the bone marrow. This present study aims to determine the clinical and laboratory features, stages, and outcomes of newly diagnosed adult myeloma patients and to identify the pattern of multiple myeloma distribution according to gender, age, occupations, risk factors, and geographic distribution. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study of 30 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma carried out at the Hematology Department of National Oncology Center Aden, Yemen, between 2019 – 2020, with history and physical examination, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, serum protein electrophoresis, B2 macroglobulin, albumin, creatinine, and calcium were done for all patients. Results: Of the 30 diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma, 11 were male, and 19 were female; Male to Female ratio was (1:1.7). The age ranged between 43 – 80 years, where (36.7%) were more than 65 years. The mean age was 63.2 years. Bone marrow plasmacytosis was noted in 100% of cases with a mean count was (32.2%). On serum electrophoresis, M-band was noted in all patients. Radio imaging revealed lytic bone lesions in 93.3%. According to ISS: The most common patients presented with stage III (40%). In the study period, (85.6 %) of the patients received bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and/or lenalidomide with dexamethasone as part of the first-line treatment. The survivors during the research period were (60%) of patients. Conclusion: This study shows that multiple myeloma is a disease of the middle and elderly aged population with a female preponderance. Bone pain and low backache were the most common presenting symptoms, along with fatigue and weakness. Most patients were in stage III at presentation with severe anemia, lytic lesions, pathological fractures, and renal insufficiency were most observations findings. Bone marrow aspiration, serum electrophoresis, and related investigations play an essential role in diagnosing and managing multiple myeloma cases.