Gamma-Enhancing Neurofeedback at Oz-EEG Channel Toward Visual Feature Binding and Fluid Intelligence Enhancement
Study aim: To study Gamma-enhancing neurofeedback learning process and evaluate its efficacy on visual feature binding and fluid intelligence Sample size: 18 healthy female students (mean age: 24.24 ± 1.94 years) Dataset: ----------- 1- Demographics: 18 subjects, Age, BMI, Weight, Height, Handedness, GPA 2- IQ measure: 18 subjects, Pretest and posttest sessions 3- Visual feature binding measure: 18 subjects, Pretest and posttest sessions, Response time and Error rate 4- 4 activity baseline EEG: 18 subjects, Pretest and posttest sessions, Tasks: Eyes open, Eyes closed, Auditory sensory attentiveness, Cognitive effort 5- Neurofeedback training EEG: 8 subjects, 8 training sessions, Eyes closed baseline EEG recorded before and after training in each session, EEG recorded during training in each session
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Study design: Randomized clinical trial. With control group. Two-arm parallel groups. Simple random allocation. Intervention group: 8 subjects. Control group: 10 subjects. Institution: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Inclusion criteria: Female. Aged between 20 to 28 years. Healthy. Have normal or corrected to normal vision. University-graduated or student, Neurofeedback-novice. Exclusion criteria: Have history of neurological diseases. Medication use. Prior to the experiments, all participants were informed about the purpose of the study and gave written informed consent to the study protocol. EEG recording device: FlexComp Infiniti (Thought Technology Ltd, Montreal, QC) EEG recording software: BioGraph Infiniti Multimedia Biofeedback Software Intervention group: 1- Pretest session: Baseline EEG recording (4 activity) + Psychological assessment (Fluid intelligence, Visual feature binding) 2- Eight Neurofeedback training sessions 3- Posttest session: Baseline EEG recording (4 activity) + Psychological assessment (Fluid intelligence, Visual feature binding) Control group: 1- Pretest session: Baseline EEG recording (4 activity) + Psychological assessment (Fluid intelligence, Visual feature binding) 2- No intervention 3- Posttest session: Baseline EEG recording (4 activity) + Psychological assessment (Fluid intelligence, Visual feature binding) IQ assessment: Fluid intelligence assessment using the paper-based version of Cattell's Culture-Fair Intelligence Test (Scale 3) Form A (pretest) and Form B (posttest). Visual feature binding assessment: Assessing visual perception through evaluating the performance of visual feature binding using a behavioral test (based on https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.10.011). EEG recording: 256 Hz sampling frequency. Active electrode at Oz-channel. Reference electrode at the left earlobe. Ground electrode at the right earlobe. Electrode impedances bellow 5 kΩ. During recordings, the subjects were sitting still in a comfortable chair with arms lying relaxed on armrests. Neurofeedback training: Eight training sessions for each subject, three training sessions per week, each session consisted of three 7 min trials, with 3 min breaks between. Protocol: Gamma (36-44 Hz) enhancing while Beta (12-20 Hz) suppression at Oz channel.