Exploring the Structural relationship Between Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs, Marital Satisfaction, and Sexual Well-Being in Iranian Women: The Role of Cognitive Schemas
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexually dysfunctional beliefs, sexual well-being, and marital satisfaction among Iranian married women. The study also explored the potential mediating role of sexual cognitive schemas. The participants were 355 Iranian married women aged 18 to 65 years who completed a battery of self-report measures to collect data. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses, and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the indirect effects of sexual dysfunctional beliefs and sexual cognitive schemas on marital satisfaction through sexual well-being. The findings indicated that sexual dysfunctional beliefs had a negative impact on sexual well-being and marital satisfaction among Iranian married women. Sexual cognitive schemas played a mediating role in this relationship, highlighting the importance of addressing negative and unrealistic sexual beliefs and promoting positive and healthy sexual cognitive schemas for improving sexual and relational outcomes. The study sheds light on the cultural and societal factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviors among Iranian women, highlighting the need to address these factors in interventions aimed at improving sexual and relational outcomes.
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The study recruited a convenience sample of 355 Iranian married women aged 18 to 65 years from various regions of Iran. Measures: The self-report measures were administered to the participants in the following order: ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Sexual Well-Being Questionnaire (FSWBQ), Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Contexts (QCSASC), and Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire (SDBQ). The questions within each measure were presented in a random order to prevent any potential order effects. The measures were administered after participants completed the demographic questions. Procedure: The study was conducted using an online survey platform to recruit participants. Participants were invited to participate through social media platforms and online forums, as well as through personal contacts of the research team. Participants who met the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent were directed to the online survey. The survey included demographic questions, followed by the measures of Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, Questionnaire of cognitive schema activation in sexual contexts, Female Sexual Well-Being Questionnaire, and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire. Participants were informed that their participation was voluntary and that they could withdraw from the study at any time. The order of presentation of the measures was randomized across participants. Data analysis: Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between sexual dysfunctional beliefs, sexual cognitive schemas, sexual well-being, and marital satisfaction. SEM allows for the testing of complex models with multiple pathways and mediators. The significance of the paths was evaluated using bootstrapping methods, and goodness-of-fit indices were used to assess the fit of the model. Specifically, the analysis involved the following steps: 1. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. 2. Correlations between variables were examined using Pearson correlation coefficients. 3. The hypothesized model was tested using SEM, with sexual dysfunctional beliefs and sexual cognitive schemas as predictors of sexual well-being, and sexual well-being as a predictor of marital satisfaction. 4. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the indirect effects of sexual dysfunctional beliefs and sexual cognitive schemas on marital satisfaction through sexual well-being. 5. Bootstrapping methods were used to test the significance of the indirect effects. 6. Goodness-of-fit indices, including the chi-square test, comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), were used to assess the fit of the model. All analyses were conducted using the statistical software packages SPSS version 22 and Amos version 24. Statistical significance was set at p < .05.