The Sex Independent Angle of Type 2 Diabetes
Patients were randomly recruited from two hospitals and divided into two groups. One group had no form of diabetes and served as controls (n = 50). The other group had the condition of type 2 diabetes (n = 71). Measurements of minimal waist, umbilical waist and hip circumference were taken. Fasting blood samples from subjects were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose and lipid profile. All sex independent anthropometric variables and blood data were compared between groups with and without type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes had a significantly higher Angle Index (AI) value as compared to controls (p < 0.001). AI was the superior sex independent anthropometric index in relation to type 2 diabetes (AUC = 0.717; p < 0.001) as compared to other sex independent variables. AI correlated with glycated hemoglobin [Spearman's Correlation (r) = 0.28, p = 0.003) and fasting blood glucose (r = 0.31, p = 0.001) levels. Patients with type 2 diabetes were four times more likely to have an AI > 184 degrees [OR 4.2 (1.8 – 9.9)] as compared to controls. Angle Index (AI) was a superior sex independent index for discriminating between patients with type 2 diabetes and patients without diabetes, as compared to waist circumference, abdominal volume index, conicity index, blood pressure readings, triglyceride levels and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels.