M1-type polarized macrophage contributes to brain damage through CXCR3.2/CXCL11 pathways after RGNNV infection in grouper

Published: 10 May 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/f5gd8tsgy9.1
, 敏琳 , Jian Tao Liang,
, Song yong Gan, Ding Liu,


The vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex system of the body. The CNS, especially the brain, is generally regarded as immune-privileged. However, the specialized immune strategies in the brain and how immune cells, specifically macrophages in the brain, respond to virus invasion remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the potential immune response of macrophages in the brain of orange-spotted groupers (Epinephelus coioides) following red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. We observed that RGNNV induced macrophages to produce an inflammatory response in the brain of orange-spotted grouper, and the macrophages exhibited M1-type polarization after RGNNV infection. In addition, we found RGNNV-induced macrophage M1 polarization via the CXCR3.2- CXCL11 pathway. Furthermore, we observed that RGNNV triggered M1 polarization in macrophages, resulting in substantial proinflammatory cytokine production and subsequent damage to brain tissue. These findings reveal a unique mechanism for brain macrophage polarization, emphasizing their role in contributing to nervous tissue damage following viral infection in the CNS.



South China Agricultural University


Histology, Fluorescence Microscopy, Western Blot, Fluorescence Labeling, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Grouper Fish


National Natural Science Foundation of China

42176103, U20A20102

National Key Research and Development Program of China


the Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Foundation


The talent team tender grant of Zhanjiang marine equipment and biology