cannabis research article
The present study aims to investigate the differences between cannabis users with PEs and cannabis users without PEs in terms of cannabis use characteristics, cognitive functions, schizotypy and childhood traumas. Identifying predictors of PEs in cannabis users may provide an opportunity for early intervention to prevent the development of psychotic disorders.
Steps to reproduce
Patients with cannabis use disorder referred to Ege University Substance Addiction Outpatient Clinic or Katip Celebi University AMATEM Outpatient Unit were included. Acquaintances of enrolled participants with regular cannabis use were reached via "snowball sampling. PEs were evaluated using twenty-two questions in the psychosis section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 2.1 (Andrews & Peters, 1998). Participants were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of PEs. PEs due to acute cannabis effects were excluded from the analysis. Clinical Assessment Participants were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders I by a trained psychiatrist. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected through a case report form. The 11- item Drug Use Identification Test (DUDIT) was used to assess the severity of cannabis use (Berman et al., 2005). Schizotypal traits were evaluated using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991). Childhood trauma was assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which has 5 subscales: Emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse (Bernstein DP et al., 1998). Turkish versions of all scales and questionnaires that used in our study were valid and reliable (Bora, 2006; Evren et al., 2014; Kılıç, 1997; Şar et al., 2012). Neuropsychological Assessment Trail making test A and B were used to assess mental flexibility, visual scanning, processing speed, graphomotor speed and executive functions (Reitan, 1958). Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) was used to measure selective attention and processing speed (Stroop, 1935). Short term auditory-verbal memory, rate of learning and retention of information were evaluated by the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (Stroop, 1935). All of the cognitive tests were valid and reliable in Turkish population (Can et al., 2016; Karakaş et al., 1999; Türkeş et al., 2015).
Ege University Research Foundation