Prevalence of dental trauma in students of Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez Elementary School.

Published: 16 April 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/fmnm8kyfvb.1


According to Cavazos, in 2011, dento-facial traumas are considered a public health issue due to their increasing incidence, untimely response or incorrect management during event presentation, and the absence of a standardized protocol for trauma management at the time of the event and a specialized professional in that area of study. Dental traumas are characterized by a sudden and unexpected presentation. Another factor that influences the prevalence of trauma is the constant growth of the child and their adaptation to such structural modifications during physical activity. There is a higher preference for trauma in males than in females, as they tend to have more physical activity and the incidence of play tends to be more violent. The regions that have reported a higher prevalence of impact trauma, with greater post-trauma discoloration, mostly involve mixed traumas that encompass both hard and soft tissues, especially the upper incisors, due to being the region at greatest risk of direct facial contusion. A descriptive observational study was conducted using retrospective cross-sectional data collection. The presence or absence of dental trauma in students was measured. Dental traumas are injuries that occur in the teeth and supporting tissues, caused by direct physical impacts; these can cause aesthetic problems, decreased chewing, and speech difficulties; this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of dental traumas in students from 5th to 2nd grade at Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez Elementary School. A prospective descriptive observational study was conducted through data collection; questionnaires were administered to 60 students aged 10 to 14 years old from 5th to 2nd grade. There was no significant difference, with 25% in males and 28% in females; the grade with the highest prevalence was 2nd grade with 25%, and the age was 13 years old with 40%. The most common type of trauma was hard tissue trauma with 89%; it was observed that the upper anterior region had the highest prevalence; the right side was more frequent in second grade (7%) and first grade (18%). According to the etiology, accidents at home accounted for 50%, with only 35% of cases receiving treatment. More than half of the population was observed to have trauma presence, with 13-year-old students showing higher prevalence; there was no significant difference in terms of gender, and the majority occurred in hard tissue; discoloration had a low incidence. Dental care was absent in most cases, and knowledge about protective measures was deficient.


Steps to reproduce

For the preparation of this research work, the following procedures were carried out: authorization was requested from the administrative director to collect data outside the school premises. After this, a letter was requested from the dental school's administration, through the administrative director, addressed to the principal of Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez Elementary School. Upon obtaining approval, a time slot was selected, during which we approached the students to first explain the nature of the research work. For those students who agreed, informed consent forms were handed out for them to take home to their parents. They were given a 1-2 day interval to return the signed consent forms. Once we received the informed consents signed by the parents from that group of the population, informed assent was obtained, and in the case of the research form, it was filled out by the researchers exclusively while questioning the student. For the data collection to be processed in this study, the domain of the variables to be measured and their indicators were identified in order to construct the measurement instrument, which consists of a presentation and an introduction explaining the purpose of the required data, highlighting the instructions for completing the questionnaire correctly, and then the specific research questions. Once the data collection instrument was developed, a pilot test was conducted, and based on its results, the final choice of the instrument or system and its application procedure were elaborated. The instrument consists of a survey-type questionnaire validated by the literature and evaluated by the specialist in the field of pediatric dentistry who advised the project at each stage. It was administered to students by the research team at Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez Elementary School from 5th to 8th grade, who were randomly selected and stratified by grade group. The collected data were organized in an Excel spreadsheet v.s.10 to prepare the data for statistical analysis by the statistician. The information is presented through tables and graphs to showcase the state of the art of the study variables in the sample at hand.


Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena


Tooth, Trauma, Dental Anomaly