Stimulation Artifact Source Separation
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can affect perception, learning and cognition, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A promising strategy to elucidate these mechanisms aims at applying tACS while electric or magnetic brain oscillations targeted by stimulation are recorded. However, reconstructing brain oscillations targeted by tACS remains a challenging problem due to stimulation artifacts. Besides lack of an established strategy to effectively supress such stimulation artifacts, there are also no resources available that allow for the development and testing of new and effective tACS artefact suppression algorithms, such as adaptive spatial filtering using beamforming or signal-space projection. Here, we provide a full dataset comprising encephalographic (EEG) recordings across six healthy human volunteers who underwent 10-Hz amplitude-modulated tACS (AM-tACS) during a 10-Hz steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm. Moreover, data and scripts are provided related to the validation of a novel stimulation artefact suppression strategy, Stimulation Artifact Source Separation (SASS), removing EEG signal components that are maximally different in the presence versus absence of stimulation. Besides including EEG single-trial data and comparisons of 10-Hz brain oscillatory phase and amplitude recorded across three conditions (condition 1: no stimulation, condition 2: stimulation with SASS, condition 3: stimulation without SASS), also power spectra and topographies of SSVEP amplitudes across all three conditions are presented. Moreover, data is provided for assessing nonlinear modulations of the stimulation artifact in both time and frequency domains due to heartbeats. Finally, the dataset includes eigenvalue spectra and spatial patterns of signal components that were identified and removed by SASS for stimulation artefact suppression at the target frequency. Besides providing an valuable resource to assess properties of AM-tACS artifacts in the EEG, this dataset allows for testing different artifact rejection methods and offers in-depth insights into the workings of SASS.