The effect of music on anxiety and physiologic parameters of transurethral resection patients
The study investigated the following hypotheses: 1) Anxiety levels of patients in the experimental group who listened to music preoperatively are different from those of the control group. 2) Physiologic parameters of patients in the experimental group who listened to music preoperatively are different from those of the control group. 2.3. Design A semi-experimental, pre- and post-test control group research design was used for the study. Data Collection The data were collected in patients’ rooms in the urology clinic by the researcher using the pre- and post-tests, introductory information form, inspection form for physiologic parameters and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data Analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 22.0 and OpenMeta [Analyst] computer programs. The data were assessed at a significance level of 0.05 and summarized using numbers, percentages, means, and standard deviations. Chi-Square analysis was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics and some disease-related features of the patients in the experimental and control groups. Independent and dependent group t-tests were used to compare the mean scores. Pearson chi-square, as well as Yates corrected chi-square and Fisher’s exact test, were used in the chi-square analyses. The effect sizes suitable for the study design and the statistical methods measuring the difference between mean scores of two groups were calculated using Hedges’ g formula. Based on the calculation results, the effect size was assessed as follows: ≤ 0.20 = weak effect, between 0.20 < d < 0.80 = moderate effect, and d ≥ 0.80 = big effect. Effect direction was determined as positive while calculating the effect size using pre- and post-test correlation data.