A Window into Early Math Development: An Observational Study of Skills and Strategies

Published: 25 March 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/gb44zw5j24.1
Lister Cabonilas,


This study examined the numeracy skills and strategies of grade 3 learners through a descriptive observational design, utilizing the EGMA tool to evaluate their proficiency in various mathematical areas. A cohort of 28 students partook in the assessment, revealing strong performances in number identification and discrimination. However, a notable portion struggled to reach mastery in missing number identification, indicating a necessity for focused instruction. Results showed varied success rates in addition, subtraction, and word problems, with over 50% of students falling below the 75% proficiency threshold in these areas. The predominant subtraction strategy involved a blend of fingers/tick marks and paper and pencil, while mental calculation and paper and pencil alone were less common. Word problem solving predominantly relied on mental calculation, followed by fingers/tick marks and combined strategies. This study underscores the strengths and weaknesses of grade 3 learners in fundamental numeracy skills. While proficiency was evident in some areas, others like missing number identification, addition, subtraction, and word problems require targeted support. Future research with larger samples and enhanced methodologies can further explore these findings to inform interventions aimed at bolstering numeracy development in grade 3 students. Evaluating diverse instructional approaches may also be beneficial in addressing identified areas of need effectively.



Education, Mathematics Education