association between plantar arch and genu recurvatum among college going students

Published: 25 April 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/gg5f34dm9j.1
himanshi chugh ,


BACKGROUND: The lower limb biomechanics play a crucial role in maintaining proper posture, stability, and gait. The plantar arch, a complex structure of bones, muscles, and ligaments in the foot, acts as a shock absorber and contributes to efficient weight distribution. Genu recurvatum, characterized by hyperextension of the knee joint beyond a straight leg, can lead to various complications like pain, instability, and increased risk of injuries. Despite extensive research on lower limb biomechanics, the potential link between plantar arch morphology and genu recurvatum in young adults remains relatively unexplored. University students, engaging in prolonged sitting or physically demanding activities, may be particularly susceptible to musculoskeletal problems. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the potential association between plantar arch morphology and genu recurvatum in a university student population. The primary objective is to determine if a correlation exists between different foot arch types (e.g., flat feet, high arches) and the degree of knee hyperextension. METHOD: This observational study investigated the relationship between plantar arch morphology and genu recurvatum in university students (18-25 years old) at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India. A purposive sampling technique yielded 57 participants with knee hyperextension (>5 degrees). Plantar arch index was measured using footprints, and genu recurvatum angle was assessed with a goniometer. Demographic data (height, weight, BMI) was also collected. Statistical analysis using IBM SPSS 26.0 aimed to identify correlations between these measures. RESULT: The study investigated the demographic attributes and their interrelationships among 57 participants. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests revealed non-normal distributions for age, weight, BMI, and GR angle. However, height and PAI showed normal distributions. Spearman correlation analyses indicated no significant correlation between weight and PAI (r = 0.072), height and PAI (r = 0.116), PAI and BMI (r = 0.20), GR angle and weight (r = -0.245), GR angle and height (r = -0.206), or GR angle and BMI (r = -0.175). However, a significant correlation was found between GR angle and PAI (r = 0.375, p = 0.004). These findings suggest that while certain demographic attributes exhibit non-normal distributions, there is limited correlation between them, except for a notable association between GR angle and PAI. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a link between flat feet (low plantar arch) and hyperextended knees (genu recurvatum) in college students. Understanding foot structure may be crucial for assessing lower limb posture and injury risk in young adults. Further research can confirm this association and inform preventive strategies for musculoskeletal problems.



Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation


Correlational Research, Knee Joint, Knee Mechanics, Foot Deformity