Supplemental Data Content to 'A nationwide analysis of gallbladder surgery in England between 2000 and 2019'

Published: 9 January 2023| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/gp9vfvs76n.2


This is the supplementary material for the paper titled “A nationwide analysis of gallbladder surgery in England between 2000 and 2019”. We aimed to generate a reliable report on four gallbladder surgeries – cholecystolithotomy, cholecystostomy, subtotal cholecystectomy and total cholecystectomy – in England to allow cross-procedure comparisons and highlight changes in the management of benign gallbladder disease over time. It adheres to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and checklist. This analysis provides valuable insights into gallbladder surgery in England and highlights a significant shift towards the increased utilization of subtotal cholecystectomy and cholecystostomy in England between 2000 and 2019. This supplement for the Mendeley repository provides further details to reproduce the study results. It is organized into sections that follow the structure of the article. It contains a synopsis of the study and explains our research in context. It provides the key messages, 16 tables (including the STROBE checklist) and ten figures. Additional data on the studies from individual English institutions that reported high subtotal cholecystectomies rates are also shown.


Steps to reproduce

This study used hospital admissions and in-patient data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) England, which is a national database that contains records of all patient admissions, attendances at Accident and Emergency departments, and outpatient appointments at NHS hospitals across the country. It included all surgeries performed in NHS Hospitals, as well as NHS-commissioned surgeries in independent sector treatment centers. We searched the HES database and accessed the hospital admitted patient care activity records. We identified the surgeries using the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys’ Classification of Interventions and Procedures (OPCS) Fourth Revision OPCS-4 codes for each fiscal year (April 1 to March 31) from 2000 to 2019. Data was retrieved from the “primary procedure and interventions: 4-character” section, where the primary procedure was summarized to a 4-character code. We selected the seven codes most frequently applied when coding surgeries for benign gallbladder disease. They were as follows: J18.2 (total cholecystectomy and exploration of the common bile duct), J18.3 (total cholecystectomy), J18.4 (partial cholecystectomy and exploration of the common bile duct), J18.5 (partial cholecystectomy), J21.4 (drainage of the gallbladder), J24.1 (percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder) and J21.1 (open removal of calculus from the gallbladder). In our study, J18.2 and J18.3 coded for total cholecystectomy (TC), J18.4 and J18.5 coded for subtotal cholecystectomy (STC), J21.4 and J24.1 coded for cholecystostomy and J21.1 coded for cholecystolithotomy. Patients of all ages were included in the study.


University of Liverpool


Epidemiology, Cholecystectomy, Gallbladder Surgery, Cholecystostomy, England